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Onshore placement of earthen fill and vegetative plantings designed to reduce wave energies and maintain shorelines in open bays, lakes, and bayous. Bank Stabilization projects include work on navigation channels. For the purposes of this plan, we assumed that funding of these projects is the sole responsibility of the federal government.
Creation and restoration of dune, beach, and back barrier marsh to restore or augment Louisiana’s offshore barrier islands and headlands.
Channels and/or structures that divert all river water and sediment in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers into adjacent basins. Projects would include the dredging of a new navigation channel.
Use of channels and/or structures to divert sediment and fresh water from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers into adjacent basins.
Project features that restore natural hydrologic patterns either by conveying fresh water to areas that have been cut off by man-made features or by preventing the intrusion of salt water into fresh areas through man-made channels and eroded wetlands.
Creation of new wetlands in open water areas through sediment dredging and placement. Most projects involve pipeline conveyance of sediment.
Establishment of bioengineered oyster reefs to improve oyster propagation and serve as breakwaters to attenuate wave energies.
Re-establishment of historic ridges in basins through local dredging, sediment placement, and vegetative plantings to restore natural ridge functions.
Near-shore rock breakwaters to reduce wave energies on shorelines in open bays, lakes, sounds, and bayous. Shoreline protection projects also include work on navigation channels. For the purposes of this plan, we assumed that funding of these projects is the sole responsibility of the federal government.
These are typically located at points along an earthen levee that have a high potential for erosion or insufficient space for the wide slopes of an earthen levee. Concrete walls were specified at junctions with water crossings, railroads, and major roadways (i.e., interstates and state highways).
The principal component of structural projects is the earthen levee. These structures consist of pyramidal banks of compacted earth that provide a barrier against storm surge for coastal communities and other assets. Levees can either be linear in shape or ringed. Ring levees form a closed risk reduction system that encircles a protected area (referred to as a polder). Linear levees create a closed system by tying into other linear levees or by extending inland to high ground.
Floodgates are needed where levees or concrete walls cross a road or railroad or where they intersect waterways. Floodgates were established for each of these crossings for the structural projects in the master plan.
Pumps are needed in enclosed risk reduction systems to allow water that enters a polder to be pumped out. Pumps were included as features of most of our protection measures.
This option involves raising residential structures so that their lowest floors are higher than projected flood depths. This measure was considered for areas with a projected flood depth of between 3 and 14 feet.
This option refits structures so they can be resistant to flood damages. Commercial floodproofing was considered for areas with projected flood depths of 3 feet or less.
We considered this option in areas where projected flood depths make elevation or floodproofing infeasible and where residential structures would need to be elevated higher than 14 feet. Our initial estimates were that only a small percent of the total nonstructural program would need this option. We will refine this aspect of the program in close partnership with local communities. A community may wish to move as a group to preserve important cultural ties. Other communities may have different needs. Working closely with affected citizens will help us fine tune this program appropriately.